Day 6 - Task: File Permissions and Access Control Lists (Dec 2, 2023)

Day 6 - Task: File Permissions and Access Control Lists (Dec 2, 2023)

Today is more on Reading, Learning and Implementing File permissions

The concept of Linux File permission and ownership is important in Linux. Here, we will be working on Linux permissions and ownership and will do tasks on both of them. Let us start with the Permissions.

  1. Create a simple file and do ls -ltr to see the details of the files refer to Notes

Each of the three permissions are assigned to three defined categories of users. The categories are:

  •      owner   —   The owner of the file or  application.
    
  • "chown" is used to change the ownership permission of a file or directory.

  •      group   —   The group that owns the file or application.
    
  • "chgrp" is used to change the group permission of a file or directory.

  •      others  —   All users with access to the system. (outised the users are in a group)
    
  • "chmod" is used to change the other users permissions of a file or directory.

    As a task, change the user permissions of the file and note the changes after ls -ltr

  1. Write an article about File Permissions based on your understanding from the notes.

  2. Read about ACL and try out the commands getfacl and setfacl

Welcome back to our Linux learning journey! Today's focus is on delving into the intricacies of file permissions and exploring the powerful world of Access Control Lists (ACL). So, let's roll up our sleeves, fire up our terminals, and dive right in!

Understanding Linux File Permissions

In the Linux world, managing file permissions is a crucial aspect of ensuring the security and integrity of your system. Every file and directory comes with a set of permissions that dictate who can read, write, or execute them. There are three main categories of users, each with its own set of permissions:

  1. Owner: This is the user who owns the file or application. You can change ownership using the chown command.

  2. Group: Every file belongs to a specific group, and you can modify this using the chgrp command.

  3. Others: This category includes all users with access to the system, excluding the owner and group members. You can tweak their permissions with the chmod command.

Task: Changing User Permissions

Let's start by creating a simple file and observing its permissions:

$ touch sample_file
$ ls -ltr

This will display the details of the file, including its permissions. Now, as a task, let's change the user permissions using the chmod command and see how it reflects in the ls -ltr output.

$ chmod u+rwx sample_file
$ ls -ltr

Observe the changes in the permissions and take note of how the user permissions have been modified.

Article: The Dance of Permissions

File permissions in Linux are like the gatekeepers of your digital kingdom. They determine who gets to enter, who can read the scrolls, and who can rewrite history. Let's break down the key components:

1. The Trio of Permissions

a. Read (r)

The read permission allows a user to view the content of a file or list the contents of a directory.

b. Write (w)

The write permission empowers a user to modify the file's content or add, remove, and rename files within a directory.

c. Execute (x)

Execute permission is necessary to run a file as a program or script. For directories, it allows users to traverse the directory.

2. Ownership Matters

Changing ownership with chown is like passing the scepter to a new ruler. It's a powerful command that ensures the right person holds the reins.

3. Group Dynamics

Files don't exist in isolation; they belong to groups. Modifying group ownership via chgrp is like reshuffling your council – important for collaborative projects.

4. Other Users in the Realm

chmod is the maestro conducting the symphony of permissions for others. It decides what outsiders can and cannot do.

Remember, the magical trio of read, write, and execute applies to each category – owner, group, and others – granting or restricting access accordingly.

Venturing into ACL

Access Control Lists (ACL) take file permissions to the next level. They allow for fine-grained control, enabling you to specify permissions for specific users or groups. Try out the following commands:

$ getfacl sample_file
$ setfacl -m u:username:rw sample_file

This snippet uses getfacl to display the ACL of sample_file and setfacl to grant read and write permissions to a specific user. Explore these commands to enhance your control over file access.

Seeking Clarifications

Learning is a journey, and doubts are the stepping stones to understanding. If you encounter any roadblocks, feel free to share your queries on our Discord community. The community is a vibrant space where fellow learners and mentors collaborate, troubleshoot, and celebrate victories together.